Lung cancer is a form of cancer that affects the tissues and cells of the lungs. It is more common in people who smoke or use tobacco-related products.
This study guide has been designed to provide a brief overview of pulmonary cancer. It also includes practice questions aimed at evaluating your knowledge.
Lung cancer is one of the major public health concerns across the world. It is estimated to comprise nearly 25% of cancer deaths.
Smoking and tobacco consumption are the leading causes of lung cancer. These factors are also associated with a poor prognosis of the lung cancer patients with only 1 out of every 6 patients having shown the chances of survival for more than 5 years after the diagnosis.
Research studies have suggested that smoking and the consumption of tobacco products have not declined in spite of efforts by the concerned healthcare authorities to create awareness about the harmful impact of these habits. This indicates that the incidence of lung cancer is likely to worsen for years to come.
Lung cancer may also develop in non-smokers, though, the overwhelming majority of the cases occur in people who smoke.
The diagnosis of pulmonary cancer is often confirmed with tests such as a PET scan, (positron emission tomography). It is an imaging method that uses radioactive substances to evaluate the metabolic activities of the lungs.
The treatment of lung cancer depends on the stage of the condition. There are different stages of this disease and each may lead to the development of different signs and symptoms.
The treatment method would vary among different patients depending on the stage as well as the extent or severity of the signs and symptoms.
The common treatment methods for patients with lung cancer include:
Smoking cessation is essential because it can help reduce the risk of mortality associated with lung cancer. It can also improve the prognosis and the survival rate of patients who have received treatment for lung cancer.
Bronchogenic carcinoma is more commonly associated with a higher risk of mortality linked to lung cancers. It is estimated that more than 200000 cases of bronchogenic carcinoma are diagnosed every year making it a major health concern.
It is a form of lung cancer that is characterized by the occurrence of the tumor at the level of the smaller airways, often presenting as pneumonia.
It is a form of cancer that is characterized by the changes in the glandular structures.
It is a form of cancer that grows more slowly compared to the small cell lung carcinoma. It is not found only in smokers and tends to occur in nearly 85 to 87 percent of cases of all lung cancers.
It is a form of lung cancer that is characterized by the presence of large cells detected with the help of tests such as microscopy.
Smoking is the most common risk factor associated with a majority of bronchogenic carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of bronchogenic carcinoma, comprising more than 40% of cases.
The major histopathologic forms of bronchogenic carcinoma include adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.
The clinical manifestation of bronchogenic carcinoma usually results from the localized growth of the tumor mass, local spread of the cancer cells, metastases to the and extrathoracic organs, and the paraneoplastic syndrome.
The staging system for the non–small cell bronchogenic carcinoma is based on the TNM classification. It comprises the status of a primary tumor (T), the involvement of the local or regional lymph nodes (N), and the presence or extent of metastasis (M).
This classification is used to categorize the patients with lung cancer into different stages that correlate with their chances of survival.
For example; the small cell lung cancer is grouped into 2 stages, called the limited stage and the extensive stage, though the TNM system of classification may also be used for the same.
The commonly used treatments for the patients with non–small cell lung cancer include surgical resection of the tumor mass, radiation, and chemotherapy.
The most effective way for the prevention of lung cancer is to avoid smoking, both active and passive.
The signs to look for the diagnosis of Pancoast’s Syndrome include the presence of a supraclavicular mass and an apical lung tumor that involves the C8, T1, and T2 nerve roots leading to shoulder pain.
The pain usually radiates along the distribution of the ulnar nerve in the arm. Also, the carcinoma in the apex of the lung often causes compression of the cervical plexus.
It is a diagnostic method that involves obtaining a sample of the lung tissue via a bronchoscope by passing a small thin needle through the bronchus.
It is a technique used for obtaining the biopsy of the lung tissue by passing a needle into the chest guided by imaging.
Respiratory therapists and students can attend our respiratory webinars 2021 to learn more about the management of lung cancer. Our Respiratory Therapy CME Conferences 2021 is focused on providing the latest information about the symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment of different forms of lung cancer that will help you manage your patients more efficiently and improve their chances of complete recovery.